Thursday, July 9, 2020
Tuberculosis (TB) is an extensive global health problem. Approximately one third of the entire population is infected with tuberculosis (Riegelman 2016). Tuberculosis is the second leading cause for high mortality rates across the world, following HIV/AIDS. In 2011, there were 8.7 million new cases of tuberculosis and 1.4 million related deaths. In 2013, mortality rose to 1.5 million deaths and those infected rose to 9 million (Fogel 2015). The disease is deadlier than the plague or cholera (Fogel 2015:528). Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the bacteria that is responsible for the disease. It is spread from person to person through aerosol droplets. People breathe in these aerosol particles and contract the disease. Tuberculosis mainly affects the lungs; however, it can also target other organs in the body. One infected individual has the potential of infecting 10 to 15 persons annually and two thirds of those infected with active TB will die. Symptoms of tuberculosis may include a cough lastly more than 3 weeks, weakness, night sweats, decreased appetite and body weakness (Riegelman 2016). Tuberculosis can also lead to severe coughing, fever, and chest pains according to Fogel (2015). TB infection and mortality rates are of a concern to g lobal health, because tuberculosis is mostly a preventable and curable disease. A vaccine known as Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin (BCG) can be given to children to reduce their risk of obtaining tuberculosis. The vaccine is normally provided to newborns and is not all that effective in adults. However, children are not significant transmitters of tuberculosis and therefore, vaccination rates of children have little impact on the prevalence and incidence rates of TB. Those who contract tuberculosis are recommended a six-month regimen by the World Health Organization in which the patient must be carefully monitored to ensure adherence. The regimen is a drug cocktail that begins with an intense two-month phase and then followed by a less intense four-month continuation phase. Depending on the situation of TB, the regimen can be complex and difficult to follow. Tuberculosis has a fast mutation rate and not adhering to this regimen can lead to drug resistance (Fogel 2015). If the disease is re sistant to one or more tuberculosis drugs, this is known as multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). Nonadherence can also lead to extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) that is difficult to treat. In 2013, approximately 5% of all TB cases were multidrug-resistant and this rate continues to increase (Riegelman 2016). Tuberculosis causes extensive costs to individuals affected and to a countrys economy overall. For instance, in India, TB causes an individual to lose three months worth of wages. In Bangladesh, TB causes a loss of 4 months of wages. In Thai, more than 15% of an individuals income is spent to treat tuberculosis (Riegelman 2016). Lower productivity of individuals causes a strain on the economys productivity and the amount of GDP spent on healthcare treating tuberculosis. The likelihood of contracting tuberculosis is increased by certain risk factors and social forces. Individuals with a compromised immune system, including those with HIV, AIDS, Diabetes, malnutrition, or even certain cancers, are at higher risks of contracting TB. Smoking can also compromise the immune system and lead to a higher risk for tuberculosis (Riegelman 2016). Specific populations are also at greater risk for contracting TB. These individuals include young male adults living in developing countries, healthcare workers who are around those infected, and foreign-born individuals according to Fogel (2015). The organization of tuberculosis healthcare services also impacts the rate of TB. TB services are not structured with the needs of patients in mind. Healthcare professionals operating TB services have been found to be authoritative, disrespectful, and nonempathetic. Healthcare has a traditionally manly, authoritative approach that does not fit the needs of men or women. Men a re reluctant to see a male physician with this mentality and it makes women feel inferior and also reluctant to seek care (Mason et al. 2017). Young men from migrant and refugee backgrounds are known to face various barriers to accessing primary care in Australia and New Zealand, while young women in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly on the Indian subcontinent, frequently face financial and social barriers to accessing primary health care services, including TB services (Mason et al. 2017:227). The homeless, HIV-positive persons, prisoners, and those living in poverty and crowded areas also have higher risks for TB. Gender also plays a role in tuberculosis rates. Sixty percent of all TB cases fall among men (Riegelman 2016). Worldwide, TB cases among men exceed those found in women, with a male to female ratio of 1.7:1 (Mason et al. 2017:227). Prisons are known as hot spots for tuberculosis due to their overcrowding of people in small spaces and since prisoners are mainly males, TB rates are shown to impact males more than females (Mason et al. 2017). Despite this, TB is also a leading killer of women causing 500,000 deaths (Riegelman 2016). According to Mason et al. (2017), men and women differ in their patterns of seeking healthcare, including diagnosis and treatment of TB. Men are constricted by social gender roles that impact their health-seeking behaviors and this can postpone the diagnosis of their TB. Women are more likely to seek care from a health professional than are men. Women also face negative experiences and stigma associated with TB and this harmfully impacts a womens adherence to treatment of TB and their health-seeking behaviors (Mason et al. 2017). Age also plays a crucial role in who obtains the disease. Seventy-five percent of all TB infections occur within the age range of 15 to 54 years old (Riegelman 2016). Women between the age of 20 to 30 for generations born between 1820 to 1900, demonstrates a peak in TB infection rates (Mason e t al. 2017). Pregnancy is suspected to play a role in the early peak of female TB mortality in late adolescence and early childhood (Mason et al. 2017:227). Compared to women in the same generations, men between the age of 30 to 40 are at greater risk of death from TB. Occupational hazards and smoking are risk factors for men later in life (Mason et al. 2017). Men are also at more risk for developing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, because they are more likely to be interrupted during treatment (Mason et al. 2017). The majority of cases of TB occur in particular areas of the world. Eighty percent of all TB cases occur mainly in 22 countries. Eighty-five percent of all multidrug-resistant TB cases occur in 27 countries, which includes Russia, India, and China (Fogel 2015). More than half of all tuberculosis cases occur in South-East Asia and the Western Pacific. The remaining high rates of TB occur in Africa- with an incidence rate of 280 new cases per 100,000 population each year, India- with 24% of new cases, and China- with 11% of all new cases (Riegelman 2016). Multiple issues must be addressed in order to reduce the prevalence, incidence, and mortality rates of tuberculosis. Poverty needs to be alleviated to allow for less crowded housing and better nutrition. Better diagnosis of TB needs to be available specifically in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Those who are diagnosed need to be provided with adequate treatment. Diagnosis and treatment of TB also needs to be globally standardized, specifically in the private sector relating to drug regimen, cheaper TB treatment, and patient follow-up. This also calls for more funding. Overall health systems and healthcare coverage need to be improved. Lab services need to be cheaper and more readily available, infection control needs to be secured, TB care should be incorporated in the primary care level, and the community needs to be provided with more education about tuberculosis. Most importantly, a new regimen of vaccine must be created in order to treat tuberculosis in a more manageable manner . This would reduce the number of noncompliant patients with the current six-month regimen. This would also lead to a reduction in the number of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant TB. In order for this to be feasible, more research funds need to be provided (Riegelman 2016). Policy is needed that takes into consideration the gender class and ethnicity of those infected as the central analysis. There is a complex interplay of biological, social, and cultural variables and risk factors rather than being about either biological or social factors (Mason et al. 2017:228). Another issue with TB is the number of cases that are not reported. The World Health Organization estimates that three million individuals are still being missed by the healthcare system each year. These individuals are either not diagnosed or are not being notified of their positive TB status. Missing cases, high death rates, and drug-resistance all point to one critical underlying problem- that high bu rden countries are unable to guarantee an acceptable quality of TB care to all patients, regardless of whether they seek care in the public or the private sector (Pai and Memish 2015:1). Patients with known TB symptoms who are not diagnosed signifies the need for standardized international diagnosis, as mentioned above. Patients who develop multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant TB demonstrates poor adherence to treatment standards, therefore a new system for monitoring individuals with TB must be established. Patients infected with tuberculosis who are not notified of their status shows the lack of engagement from health providers, specifically in the private sector. The World Health Organization has recently announced their ambitious End TB Strategy. This strategy aims to put an end to the worldwide TB epidemic and reduce TB deaths by 95%. The End TB Strategy also aims to reduce the incidence rates of TB by 90% from 2015 to 2035. It also aims to ensure families are not burdened by shattering expenses due to TB. The End TB Strategy may convince country governments to invest more in their tuberculosis control programs. For example, the Indian government is aiming to end TB by 2020 and has established a goal to provide universal access to tuberculosis treatment to all patients of acceptable quality. In order for this to be effective, the Indian government must provide more resources and money to this since their current TB expenditure is low. China on the other hand, has made major investments in their TB control and have successfully lowered their TB prevalence by more than half in the last 10 years. There is also an overall global funding gap for TB. Eight billion U.S. dollars are needed to respond to the TB epidemic, however there is a shortfall of two billion U.S. dollars (Pai and Memish 2015). These solutions will take political leaders and policy makers to provide adequate resources. If these solutions were implemented, the cost of healthcare expenditure on TB would decrease and lives would be saved.
Thursday, July 2, 2020
I was always the youngest kid in my class. Having a September birthday was both a blessing and a curse; I got pegged as Ã¢â¬Å"the smart girlÃ¢â¬ who was younger than everyone else, but I had to deal with the inevitable possibility that my birthday would fall on the first day of school, a tragedy mended only by eating an extra slice of birthday cake (and possibly one for breakfast the next morning.) No matter what the circumstances were, however, I always looked forward to my birthday and celebrating with my family and friends. Each year brought another birthday party, an extra candle to blow out, and a higher probability of receiving money instead of actual gifts (but whoÃ¢â¬â¢s complaining?) Every birthday seemed to come and go seamlessly, each one perfect in its own way. Except last yearÃ¢â¬â¢s, when I turned 17 and finally recognized the harrowing reality of my future: I would never experience my birthday at home again. The horror! Although this may seem like a petty com plaint, the realization that I only had one more year to go before I Ã¢â¬Å"left the nestÃ¢â¬ nagged at my conscience, and I was suddenly petrified of all that the next year had in store for me. My senior year of high school posed so many threats to my emotional well-being: the stress of college applications, the increased rigor of my schoolwork, and the added responsibilities of being a role model to the underclassmen all wore on me as I plugged my way to graduation, a seemingly endless pursuitÃ¢â¬ ¦ Fast forward to August 14th, 2013: Move in day for Katie. (I survived my senior year and did in fact graduate-with honors!) After a summer spent traveling, relaxing, and spending time with good friends, I was not ready for college to begin. After teary-eyed goodbyes, a few farewell gifts, and a full 24 hours of unpacking, decorating, and organizing, I was finally settled in my new dorm in East Baker. That night, as anxious thoughts of the next few weeks and fond memories of home i ntermingled in my mind, I remembered that my birthday was coming up. And not just any birthday-my 18th birthday-my entrance into adulthood! At last, I would be able to sign my own papers, buy a lottery ticket, and (most importantly) order moon sand from the TV! The excitement of such a milestone, however, was muted by the depressing truth that I would not see my family or friends for my birthday, nor would I get to blow out 18 purple candles on top of a chocolate cake with chocolate icing, just how I like it. Fast-forward again, to the present, September 2nd, 2013: My 18th birthday. At this point, I have already spent nearly two weeks on campus-and let me say, I have never enjoyed two weeks so much in my life. I decided before arriving on campus that I would thrust myself into every opportunity presented to me with abandon, and so far I can say with confidence that that is exactly what I have done. From ordering a chocolate chip cookie milkshake from SloopyÃ¢â¬â¢s, riding the COT A bus downtown to go to the Columbus Greek Festival, trying out an indoor cycling class, to spending way too much BuckID cash on CuzzinÃ¢â¬â¢s Frozen Yogurt in one week, I have been loving life here. In fact, I have never felt so alive. So it was fitting that for my birthday I would do something special with my newfound vitality, and it was even more fitting that my birthday fell on Labor Day this year (no classes!!) The Sunday before my birthday, I was walking back to my dorm after watching a movie with a friend when I realized that it was getting close to midnight, which meant that I had only a few more fleeting moments of youth. When my friend pointed out that we were close to the oval, I knew that was where I wanted to officially turn 18. Laughing, my friend and I ran goofily for the oval, glancing down at our phones to make sure we didnÃ¢â¬â¢t miss midnight. We made it just in time. When midnight struck, I realized how much time I had spent worrying unnecessarily about the future. I had been so concerned that I would miss my family on my birthday that I hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t even considered the possibility that Ohio State could be my home for my special day, and my newfound friends my family. As I glanced around the illuminated Oval, I understood why everyone told me that college was the best four years of your life; I had only experienced two weeks, and it was already the best time of my life. After going on a refreshing early morning jog the next morning, I hopped on an Ohio State bus and headed to the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium for a free day trip, and spent my afternoon laughing at playful monkeys, gawking at massive elephants, and enjoying the irony of spending my first day of adulthood at the zoo. After worrying that I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t get to open any presents this year, I received in the mail three wonderful boxes decorated lovingly by my family, filled with goodies that reassured me that I am still loved, even though I am in college! After fretting t hat I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t get a cake this year, one of my best friends dropped off a cookie cake decorated in purple and pink flowers, with Ã¢â¬Å"Happy 18th Birthday KatieÃ¢â¬ scripted in pink icing. To top things off, I went out to dinner at the Blackwell InnÃ¢â¬â¢s restaurant Bistro 2110 with a date, and enjoyed one of the best dinners IÃ¢â¬â¢ve ever had, complete with a long 15 block walk in high heels to JeniÃ¢â¬â¢s ice cream in the Short North. When I look back on it, I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have asked for a better birthday. The blisters I now have canÃ¢â¬â¢t stop me from smiling.
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
Dramatic Tension in The Crucible by Miller The Crucible Coursework Excitement, nervousness, stress, anxiety, suspense, unease, and apprehension are all forms of dramatic tension that Miller creates throughout the Crucible. Dramatic tension is created by Miller throughout the Crucible in many ways. Straightaway, the title of the play, Ã¢â¬Å"the CrucibleÃ¢â¬ implies to the audience of the tension that is to come in the play. Miller names the play Ã¢â¬Å"the CrucibleÃ¢â¬ to represent the puritanical society of Salem, the historic people of Salem wanted to purify each other from the DevilÃ¢â¬â¢s work, they even went to the extent of killing their fellow neighbours in order to purify them. The variety of characters involved in the witch trials allÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This lead to a constant atmosphere of suspicion; a Ã¢â¬Å"two man patrolÃ¢â¬ was sent out during times of worship to spy on and take the names of, those who were either lounging beside the meeting house or working in their fields. Miller uses this suspicious atmosphere of accusing people of witches in Salem as an allegory for the times of accusing people of being a communist spy in America in the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s. Miller describes the people of Salem as unreasonable, stubborn and ridiculously protective of their children. Miller shows this ignorance when he says that the people of Salem believed they held Ã¢â¬Å"the candle that would light the worldÃ¢â¬ and that Ã¢â¬Å"their church found it necessary to deny any other sect its freedom, lest their New Jerusalem be defiled and corrupted by wrong ways and deceitful ideasÃ¢â¬ . Dramatic tension is established by Miller at the beginning of Act 3 of Ã¢â¬Å"The CrucibleÃ¢â¬ because the audience is aware the trial will decide the fates of the people of Salem that we have got to know in the first two acts. The tension is heightened almost immediately because Francis Nurse tells Judge Danforth that the girls are frauds. From this point we are made aware that the girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ testimony will have a significant influence on the trial. In Act 3 there are two occasions where Miller uses stage craft to create tension. In the beginning of the Act, Miller only lets the audience hear the charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ voices; he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t allow theShow MoreRelatedDramatic Irony in the Crucible862 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEnglish 10, essay The Crucible, option 2 In Ã¢â¬Å"The CrucibleÃ¢â¬ , Arthur Miller uses dramatic irony to create anxiety, frustration and to demonstrate the tension between the people about the lies of witchcraft in Salem. I. The author creates tension in the story by using Abigail who accuses innocent people of witchery. 1.) Abigail wants Elizabeth to get hanged so she can be back with John again. 2.) Abigail turns herself against Mary Warren after she confessed in court. II. The author createsRead MoreÃ¢â¬ËThe CrucibleÃ¢â¬â¢ as an Allegory for McCarthyism Essay1007 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¢â¬ËThe CrucibleÃ¢â¬â¢ is an allegory. An allegory is a story with an obvious meaning but if you look deeper into it, there is another meaning. In this case, the obvious meaning is the Salem witch-hunt and the hidden meaning is McCarthyism. McCarthyism started in the early 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s and it was governmental accusations with no evidence. Joseph McCarthy started doing trials on those he thought were communist, but he had no evidence for it. This is the same as the witch trials in The Crucible. Arthur Miller wroteRead More Analyze how Arthur Miller creates dramatic tension at the end of Act 31300 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAnalyze how Arthur Miller creates dramatic tension at the end of Act 3 of The Crucible. During this essay, I will be explaining how Arthur Miller creates dramatic tension at thee end of Act 3 of his novel, The Crucible. I will be organizing this essay in paragraphs by points. Here are the main points I will be analyzing: - Setting - Stage Directions - Characters and Language - Comparing thee witch trials to the McCarthyism Proctor brings Mary to court and tells Judge DanforthRead MoreEssay about Themes in The Crucible1294 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThemes in The Crucible In the crucible Arthur Miller takes the chilling story of the Salem witch hunt in 1692 and combines it with the issues of McCarthyism in the 1950s. The play reflects MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas and opinions about McCarthyism and what he thinks are the similarities to the Salem witch hunts. Proctor is the main character Millers uses to reflect the unfairness of the Salem and McCarthy trials and how the truth died in the 1950s. This makes ProctorÃ¢â¬â¢s role very dramatic and excitingRead MoreHow Does Arthur Miller Create Drama and Tension in Act 1 of Ã¢â¬Ëthe CrucibleÃ¢â¬â¢?1661 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHow does Arthur Miller create drama and tension in Act 1 of Ã¢â¬ËThe CrucibleÃ¢â¬â¢? The Crucible is a play, which explores the witch- hunting hysteria that happened in Salem 1692. Miller uses this Ã¢â¬Å"organized mass-hysteriaÃ¢â¬  to comment on his own similar experience during the 1950s. Through Ã¢â¬Å"The CrucibleÃ¢â¬ , Miller is able to draw an analogy between the hysteria of the Salem witch-trails and its modern parallel of the anti communist Ã¢â¬Ëwitch-huntsÃ¢â¬â¢ which occurred due to the HUAC-House of un-American CommitteeRead MoreThe Crucible By Arthur Miller998 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmotivated by jealousy and spite. The Crucible is a four-act dramatic play production that was first performed on January 22, 1953. Arthur Miller used dialogue within the characters to cover the multiple themes; conflicts and resolutions, plus the few directions for the different actions of the play. The Salem Witch Trials were intended to be performed as the play however, when read, it can be more carefully examined and broken down to analyze the techniques. Miller, the playwright, uses literaryRead MoreTension in Arthur Millers The Crucible Essay991 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTension in Arthur Millers The Crucible Though The Crucible is set against the background of the Salem witch trials in 1629, it reflects the McCarthy anti-communism trials of 1950s America. The citizens of Salem (Massachusetts) had Puritan beliefs and were very religious. Due to their strong Christian beliefs, there was a great fear that people could form compacts with the devil and they even believed witchcraft and supernatural events really existed. Arthur MillerRead MoreThe Bravest of Individuals Is One Who Obeys His or Her Conscience, 871 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswill lead to the right choices in life. Two examples of literature that strongly support this quote can be found in Of Mice And Men by John Steinbeck, as well as The Crucible by Arthur Miller. The use of literary elements, such as rising action, dramatic irony, mood and foreshadowing. In Arthur Miller s, The Crucible, John Proctor is faced with a life or death situation. Even though John Proctor virtually has the choice of which path to follow, life or death, there are many other variablesRead MoreEssay on Tension in Act One of Arthur Millers The Crucible1236 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesTension in Act One of Arthur Millers The Crucible Miller builds up the tension using theatrical effects, language, the relationships of characters and the plot development, the structure of the act. He makes us visually aware of the tension using these tools. He needs tension as the story of the crucible is about witchcraft. Miller draws in the character of Proctor as himself, as Miller was caught up in communism in America and fought to maintain his dignity, as ProctorRead MoreMillers Presentation of the Theme Of Greed And Envy within The Crucible1071 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMillers Presentation of the Theme Of Greed And Envy within The Crucible The Crucible was written in 1953 by Arthur Miller in the time of the cold war, although the play was set in 1692. The play is about a town called Salem in America and about the witch-hunts that took place there. Because it was written in this time period there is a feeling of mistrust, greed and envy echoed in the play. Arthur Miller plays on these feelings and produces a theme of greed and envy that
No Child Left Behind No Child Left behind Act was the brainchild of President George W. Bush administration. The No Child Left behind legislation was signed into law on January 8, 2002. The act compels public schools receiving federal funding to carry out statewide standardized tests annually to all the students (Williams, McClellan, Rivlin, 2010). Students have to take same test under same conditions. This essay seeks to enumerate ways in which the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 impact public schools. After the Introduction of NCLB, test driven accountability has become the norm in public schools. Other stakeholders in the education sector have raised concerns that reliance on test as a measure of educational achievement may be misleading a move that NCLB has defended saying that theirs has been to direct attention to low achieving students with a view to improving their performances (Dee Jacob, 2010). Analyses that have been conducted by stakeholder organizations have shown that NCLB impacts particular schools and districts differently. Title 1 schools missing AYP criteria for two consecutive years have been slapped with title 1 sanctions. Because non-title 1 schools do not receive title 1 funding, they never face title 1 sanctions even if they fail to make AYP. Schools missing AYP have always been associated with negative publicity and visibility that has culminated into stigma (Chakrabarti, 2012). Reports from state and district officials have indicated thatShow MoreRelatedEssay on The Impact of No Child Left Behind1000 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) was a piece of legislation proposed by the administration of George W. Bush. The legislation required states to develop educational plans to address issues of assessments, standards, and accountability. Under the No Child Left Behind Act, states would have to administer tests yearly in reading, math, and science. No Child Left Behind holds school districts accountable for student achievement or lack of achievement. No Child Left Behind legislation is basedRead MoreHow Education Is The Key Focus On Improving Test Scores1635 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand foundations of the school, teaching levels, what should be taught and standardized test to check for improvement, and are working on implementing another one called the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). George Bush introduced the Ã¢â¬ËNo Child Left be hind ActÃ¢â¬â¢ (NCLB) in 2002. Since 1969 the Ã¢â¬ËNational Assessment of Educational ProgressÃ¢â¬â¢ (NAEP) has provided data on studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ test scores and performances. The Ã¢â¬ËMississippi Curriculum Test, Second EditionÃ¢â¬â¢ (MCT2) was founded on the MS frameworks ofRead MoreEssay about No Child Left Behind May Leave Some Behind965 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesresult of the No Child Left Behind Act. Continuous talk about the No Child Left Behind Act can be heard in the hallways of schools nationwide, but why does it matter? The No Child Left Behind Act plays a major role in our studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ education. The students affected by this act is AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s future. Without school making a positive impact on these students, it will be less likely that they will be motivated to make a positive impact on America in the future. The No Child Left Behind Act may be consideredRead More No Child Left Behind Act Essay examples695 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesNo Child Left Behind Act The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, President George W. Bushs education reform bill, was signed into law on Jan. 8, 2002. The No Child Left Behind Act says that states will develop and apply challenging academic standards in reading and math. It will also set annual progress objectives to make sure that all groups of students reach proficiency within 12 years. And the act also says that children will be tested annually in grades 3 through 8, in reading and math toRead MoreNo Child Left Behind Act Essay710 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, President George W. Bushs education reform bill, was signed into law on Jan. 8, 2002. The No Child Left Behind Act says that states will develop and apply challenging academic standards in reading and math. It will also set annual progress objectives to make sure that all groups of students reach proficiency within 12 years. And the act also says that children will be tested annually in grades 3 through 8, in reading and math to measure their progress. Read MoreHistory And Politics Of Education1301 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesissues we are dealing with and what kind of society we are becomingÃ¢â¬ (Eng 272). It is the guiding factor in determining what course of action is necessary for progress to be attainable. As time progresses, many efforts, such as the 2001 No Child Left Behind Act, are created to limit the negative effects of having multiple groups of people in one education system. This research report will analyze how education reform has changed and examine both the positive and negative effects that lead to theRead MoreEssay on The No Child Left Behind Act953 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesare being left behindÃ¢â¬ (www.ed.gov). The Ã¢â¬Å"No Child Left BehindÃ¢â¬ Act expands the federal governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s role in elementary and secondary education. The NCLB act was enacted January 8, 2002, and has four reform principles to the act: Accountability, flexibility, Researched-based reforms a nd parental options. Accountability begins with informed parents, communities and elected leaders so we can work together to improve schools. The states will measure the progress by testing every child in grades 3Read MoreOutline Of A Annotated Outline956 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesschool to the AYP requirements. II. Body Paragraph 1 A. What is Adequate Yearly Progress? B. Ã¢â¬Å" It is the measurement used to hold districts, schools, and states accountable for student performances under the Title I of the No Child Left Behind ActÃ¢â¬ . Adequate Yearly Progress. (2004, August 3). - Education Week Research Center. Retrieved September 16, 2014, from http://www.edweek.org/ew/issues/adequate-yearly-progress/ C. Adequate Yearly Progress is very important to teachersRead MoreLegal Roles And Responsibilities Of Teachers1035 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesassurances each citizen the rights to bear arms, free speech, and religion, the Constitution helps teachers to understand their rights. A teacher s responsibility is vital to guaranteeing that every child obtains the best education possible while protecting their health and safety. No Child Left Behind (Klein, 2015), FERPA, INTASC helps teachers to understand the meaning of studentÃ¢â¬â¢s academic level and success. The Bill of Rights states to bear arms, free speech, to privacy and more. The freedomRead MoreThe No Child Left Behind1693 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesof education and the high cost of funding, the country aims to ensure that all public schools in all states achieve quality education. The Ã¢â¬Å"No Child Left BehindÃ¢â¬ Act is AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s law that expanded the role of the federal government in education reform, particularly focused on improving the education of marginalized American students. At the core of this act are various measures in increasing student achievement. It also puts emphasis on the accountability of states and schools for student achievement
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Many Drawbacks of Homeschooling Carole Kennedy, a principal at a school in Columbia, Missouri, talks about how time and time again she has seen many bright young children turn into lazy and poor students when they decided to turn to homeschooling. Carole specifically remembers a young boy who used to go to public school. He had some behavioral problems and his parents constantly received calls from school. She said that eventually the parents grew sick of dealing with the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s problems at school and decided to withdraw him from public school to teach him at home. All of the childÃ¢â¬â¢s former friends had heard that at home he did very little work. This has happened to many children over the years (Pfleger 55). Most children wouldÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Most parents do not want their children pressured into making bad decisions that will hurt them later in life. Religion also plays a key role in a parentÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to keep their children home from publ ic schooling. Ã¢â¬Å"Families from diverse backgrounds resort to homeschooling because they are dissatisfied with the quality or content of public schoolsÃ¢â¬ (Lines 21). A family that revolves heavily around religion would not be happy with the lack of religious studies in public school. Public schooling also poses difficulties if a family lives in the military and must constantly move around from place to place. In some cases, to just keep a child home proves easier. Many people argue that their children are safer in home schools than in public schools in the wake of all the recent school shootings as well. Public schooling demonstrates effectiveness and efficiency. Homeschooled parents like to point out that public schools do not have a specific learning program for every child. While it might appear that public schools use broad learning techniques, they actually Ã¢â¬Å"have been refined for decades to supply the best possible teaching to the vast majority of all studentsÃ¢â¬ (Hudak 41). Though it may appear that these teaching styles do not cover a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s specific learning style; the schools supplement them with special programs like the Gifted and Talented program. TheseShow MoreRelatedEssay On Homeschooling907 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHomeschooling Many families are taking their children out of public and private schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s classroom to move the classroom to their homes. In both articles, the parents have different reasons for why they are choosing to homeschool instead of keeping their children in public or private schools. Homeschooling is not for everyone and cannot be taken lightly. There are many different reasons why families would rather homeschool instead of sending their children to public schools. According to parentsRead MoreIs Homeschool Not Public School?757 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesUsing whatever resource is available is great. Even if the choices are limited because you are home with your children there are better ways if parents take the time to think about what is the best way to homeschool. 1. Remember you are home: Homeschooling does take time to adjust to but donÃ¢â¬â¢t require your children to school as if they were in public school. Scheduling is much different. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s much more relaxed and calm. There is no need for strict, inflexible rules. Encouragement and love are necessaryRead MoreHomeschooling: A New Way of Learning Essay1547 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmy family. My experiences as a homeschooler led me to want to research homeschooling and how it has affected others. Where homeschooling remains to be one of the fastest developing trends in America and that very trend is spreading worldwide. The number of students being homeschooled has increased greatly, to about 1.1 million from 1999 to 2003, according to a study conducted by the U.S. Department of Education. With many new and exciting statistics being put out daily, such include homeschoolersRead MoreEssay on Definition of Home Schooling1622 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestraditional school environmentÃ¢â¬ (Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), 1999). Parents homeschool their children in many different ways. The techniques vary from traditional ways of teaching using textbooks, to community activism, to the study of classic literature and Latin, and many versions in between (Ransom, 2001; Izhizuka et. al., 2000). Homeschooling is permitted in all 50 states, however, each state has its own rules and regulations for legally taking a child out of the traditionalRead MoreEducation Is Not A Perfect System978 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesessentially become Ã¢â¬Å"schoolingÃ¢â¬ (Gatto 28). Compulsory educationÃ¢â¬â¢s major flaw is its existence as a Ã¢â¬Å"networkÃ¢â¬ whose sole purpose is to churn out citizens who will fit into the American workforce (Gatto 53). An alternative to compulsory education is homeschooling, and if Gatto were to decide, all children would be homeschooled within their individual community. Yet, in what John Dewey would call todayÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"progressive society,Ã¢â¬ an increased expectation of global participation requires childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s educationRead MorePublic High School Reform : Public School2137 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesPublic High School Reform Let s get straight to the point, American public school s are failing, and although the solutions to their many problems arenÃ¢â¬â¢t entirely implicit, remedial endeavors have been lackluster at best. In fact, According to PISA(Program for International Student Assessment), a recent international academic assessment, American students are significantly falling behind their international counterparts in math, reading, science, and have sunk to the 36th spot in the internationalRead MoreThe And The Contemporary Manifestations Of Alternates From Traditional School Structures1419 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe large, overarching beliefs from both sides of the argument, but as far as the contemporary issues and possibilities are concerned, there are three alternative school structures I would like to look at; private schools, charter schools, and homeschooling. The first example I would like to look at is charter schools. Charter schools are a rather recent invention having only begun twenty four years ago in Minnesota. Since then, however, they now account for a total 5.8% of public schools in 2012Read MoreThe Benefits And Drawbacks Of Total Immunization1634 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAuditing The Benefits And Drawbacks of Total Immunization On April 16, 1850, many people were relieved to know that the polio vaccination became required in all US schools. At this time, doctors and medical researchers did not think that now requiring one vaccine would create such a ripple affect, as well as so much controversy. Now, in the twentyfirst century, vaccinations are one of the medical fields strongest defenders of health and have created the ability for the body to become immune to virusesRead MoreEssay The Dark Side of Online Education2078 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesadvanced, but that they are being replaced by at home online courses. Unfortunately many of the students enrolled arenÃ¢â¬â¢t because they need this type of education but rather that they do it out of pure convenience. The problem with all of this is that people are so impressed by the possibilities that they forget that homeschooling is not necessarily the best environment for education. Although convenience may be important to many Americans today, the potential harm of an online education to a young studentRead MoreShould Home Schooling Be Encouraged as an Alternative to Educate Children?2711 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagestogether. Thus, they fought for their common goal which was to let children to have the opportunity to study in a better and safer environment, and hence, motivate children to study. (Parenting 4 Dummies, 2007). For many years, there are many who tend to argue that home schooling bri ngs many disadvantages. These disadvantages includes the impression that homeschooled kids are unable to get socialize, cost of home schooling will be a burden for parents and some of them even claim that home schooling is
Reality television is a programming that documents apparently unscripted real-life situations. The genre of reality TV shows focus tends to be on drama and personal conflict, rather than educating viewers. The roles of black women on reality television depict negative stereotypes. The roles they are portraying makes them out to look negative. Black women are already assumed to be angry, petty, loud, violent, bad attitudes, drama queens, and many more. Their actions on reality TV is portrayed to people outside our culture exactly the way they expects us to be or act. Stereotypes are taken into new levels based on reality TV, because to a certain extent, majority of black women in my society is acting that way. Those women actions on reality TV shows seem to have an influence on majority of black women who are viewers actions. For instance, we have reality shows like Love and Hip Hop, Basketball Wives, Bad Girl Clubs, The Real House Wives of Atlanta, and many more. Love Hip Hop is one of the most talked about shows that negatively portrays the roles of black women. That show is full of drama which makes it interesting to watch, but shows a poor look on black women. TV critics says that this is one of the most intense reality shows, because it shows verbal and physical abuse in black relationships. The original Ã¢â¬Å"Love Hip HopÃ¢â¬ started Mona Scott-YoungÃ¢â¬â¢s depredation into reality TV, stereotyping black women as angry, promiscuous and so on. In one of the seasons LHH NewShow MoreRelatedThe Representation of African Americans in the Media and Popular Culture901 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIntroduction In popular culture, specifically American television, representations of African Americans often rely upon an array of stereotypes. Representation is the production of meaning through language or signifying systems. In media, the dominant stereotypes of African Americans include the sapphire, the coon, the jezebel, and the buck. These stereotypes originated during the minstrelsy period of the 1830s from white actors in blackface. While classic Black stereotypes originated during this period, theyRead MoreAfrican American Women : Hypersexualized Vs. Angry Black Woman807 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAfrican American Women: Hypersexualized vs. Angry Black Woman African American women have not had the opportunity to land career changing roles in many years. Most roles that are offered are small roles where they are seen and not really heard. There has been a shift in the past few years where African American women have increased in their appearance in television shows. Minorities have been underrepresented in television shows in the years, however in recent years there has been a trend of moreRead MoreLanguage Analysis : The Big Screens955 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesview of reality. Terministic screen is a term attributed to Kenneth Burke which describes this concept of persuasive language. Terministic screens are also used to identify who we are and what we believe. Viola DavisÃ¢â¬â¢s Emmy Acceptance Speech uses elements of terministic screens to persuade her audience to create more opportunities on television for women of color. The use of terms impacts how we come to understand an act or person. As Burke sates terminology is a refle ction of reality, by itsRead MoreHow African Americans Are Portrayed On The Show Essay1447 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesI am a pretty big fan of reality TV because it entertains me. To see the lives of different celebrities, and to see what they do and go through on a day to day basis, in my opinion, is worth tuning in to once a week. Sometimes the stuff shown on reality TV be funny, but other times they can be rather disappointing. TV station, VH1, is home to an abundance of reality television shows, however, very few of those shows are more popular than the series Love and Hip Hop. Love and Hip Hop has been goingRead MoreMedia s Influence On Society1293 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesperceived (Arendt, 2013). Television is very popular in American culture, but also one of the most likely sources to promote stereotypes. Research by Gunter, Harrison et al. uses the cultivation theory to help explain how television fiction can shape beliefs and assumptions about reality. The cultivation theory simp ly states that the more time people spend Ã¢â¬Å"livingÃ¢â¬ in the television world, the more likely they are to believe those social fictions that are portrayed on television (Morgan, 2005). MediaRead MoreThe Real Housewives Of Atlanta1141 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesTelevision has been one the most influential pieces of technology as a source for entertainment. During the earliest days of Televisions introduction into society, there were always shows highlighting the portrayals of mothers cooking and cleaning their homes for their husbands and children. Although, as time moved on, television and the shows that were channeled on it took a dramatic turn, leaving the days of drama free entertainment as a vast memory. Today, however, when a person turns on a televisionRead MoreAfrican American Women Have A Long History Of Being Political Activists958 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAfrican American women have a long history of being political activists. African American foremothers, such as: Fran ces E.W. Harper, Maria Stewart, Sarah Mapps Douglass, Sarah Parker Remond, Harriet Jacobs, Mary Ann Shadd Cary, and Ida B. Wells were fighting for racial, social, and gender equality since slavery and the Emancipation Proclamation. Whether it is in print culture or in public culture African American women have continuously protested the treatment of African Americans and women in AmericaRead MoreAfrican American Stereotypes Reality Television1531 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesReality programs have dominated television networks since their rise in popularity began in the early 1990s with MTVÃ¢â¬â¢s The Real World. The reality genre quickly gained viewership as it redefined the formulaic set up of televisions shows from the past. Reality television has infiltrated television because networks prefer low budgets for their programs that also generate high ratings (Hasinoff, 2008). People watch reality shows because they are intrigued by the seemingly Ã¢â¬Å"realÃ¢â¬ drama with ordinaryRead MoreThe Representation Of Race, Class And Gender925 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesoppressions. Ideologies of class that commemorate the upper class and diminish the lower class are seen in many programs. Ideologies of gender that discriminate women and promote sexism, ideologies of race that misrepresent people of color are mostly created by people who have different perspectives and ideologies. For instance in a 2008 television commercial for the Japanese cell phone companies, a monkey is shown in an election campaign with the slogan Ã¢â¬Å"Change,Ã¢â¬ the same slogan widely used during theRead MoreKingfisher Essay1281 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesin 1928. The program itself was about two Black men living in Harlem, New York, but the radio programs originators where actually White. After gaining popularity as a radio show, Amos n Andy came to CBS television in 1951. However, the television shows success was ultimately short lived. Amos n Andy received heavy backlash from several Black civi l rights organizations that condemned the television show for being insulting and a portraying blacks Ã¢â¬Å"in a stereotyped and derogatory manner.Ã¢â¬ The
A Clean Well Lighted Place Essay The conversation starts out with the narrator setting up the story and the scene, as most do. An indication is made about the setting in the cafÃÆ'Ã © with the leaves giving a shadow and hence telling us that the story was taking place on a patio or street of the cafÃÆ'Ã ©. An old man that was deaf and seems to be on hard times, which he was, especially after finding out that he had recently tried to commit suicide. One of the waiters whos table the old man was sitting at began to get impatient with him just sitting there taking up his time, that he felt was better suited for sleep since three-o-clock in the morning was too late for bedtime. This was one indicator of the waiters age, his impatience was most likely derived from his youthfulness and preoccupation with a young family at home. Several statements made by the younger waiter like, Youll be drunk and You should have killed yourself last week, began to encourage the older waiter to take up for the old man and let his true feelings out instead of being passive and courteous as he had been in previous conversation. As the ensuing conversation takes place between the waiters we begin to realize each ones priorities and what relationship that the old man plays in their lives. The older waiter began to recognize himself in the old man, not mentioning anything about a family of his own at home. Another reason the older waiter sympathized with him was the fact of his own age and could see why the old man did the things that he did. Loneliness seemed to be a common factor for both of the older men. When the younger waiter had left and the bartender came into play, it reminded me of the same scenario that had just played out between the younger waiter and the old man. This time it was the bartender somewhat being the young waiter and the older waiter being the old man. When he said the Lords Prayer replacing words with nada he was giving the inclination that no one really gave a damn, and he might as well play out the cards life is dealing him. He also continued to talk about the lighting in the place as if he and the old man felt safe because of it, almost a kind of phobia about the dark. Safe in the shadow of the leaves of the trees, yet he could see everything and everyone around him. At the end when he was going to bed and the sun was coming up he said that he must have insomnia, and made it expectable by believing that a lot of people have it, so nothing was wrong with him. The older waiter and the old man seem to both be suffering from depression, however, the older man was in a far more advanced state of the problem. The older waiter could see that his life of loneliness would eventually perpetuate into what he had experience that night during his visit with the other waiter and how the old man had been treated. I think that as we get older we also realize that life can take turns for the worse and true realization of what could happen to us is more believable. When we are younger everyone likes to believe that they are invincible.